| Conotoxins were highly bioactive peptides utilized by marine predatory cone snails (Conus species) to subdue their preys. It was estimated a repertoire of more than 100,000 different conotoxins around the world. According to the highly conserved signal region, conotoxins can be classified into 27 superfamilies: A, B2, C, D, O, M and T-superfamily, et al. Each superfamily of the conotoxins selectively target a specific subtype of ion channels or receptors. Due to their highly pharmacological potency and target selectivity, Conus peptides have developed as potential drug leads or as new research tools in neuroscience field. Currently, conotoxins from ten superfamilies (A, B3, C, D, J, L, S, O1, M and T) have been reported to specifically target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This review aims to give a brief summary of the studies on sequence characters, structures and functions of the conotoxins that specifically target nAChRs.